Saturday, March 14, 2020
In what ways is Eliots The Love Song of J.Alfred Prufrock, an example of modernist writing Essay Example
In what ways is Eliots The Love Song of J.Alfred Prufrock, an example of modernist writing Essay Example In what ways is Eliots The Love Song of J.Alfred Prufrock, an example of modernist writing Paper In what ways is Eliots The Love Song of J.Alfred Prufrock, an example of modernist writing Paper Essay Topic: Literature The Love Song Of J alfred Prufrock TS Eliots poem The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufock is a manifestation of early modernist writing. Written in 1915, TS Eliot helped mould the ideology of modernist writing, through his use of language, creation of new rhythms and techniques, and presentation of images. Modernism itself came about as a result of experimentation and thus become the most influential literary movement of the early twentieth century. Themes of self reflection and focusing on the characters conscious and subconscious thoughts are prevalent throughout Love Song, helping shape forms of modernism. TS Eliot helped establish elements of modernist writing through his allusions to other works of literature, also creating new modern techniques in The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock through grand use of language which served to mock the subject rather then praise it. Prufock is a variation on the dramatic monologue thus leading the way in modernism for a new, non-linear form of poetry. Modernist influences can be seen through TS Eliots utilization of language and form. TS Eliots use of irony is prevalent in the title of the poem itself, as we determine that The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufock is not a love poem but rather a depiction of a lonely, isolated figure who feels alienated from the society around him. The opening lines Let us go then, you and I/ When the evening is spread out through the sky signal the start of a traditional love poem, and emanate thoughts of romance. However, the following line like a patient etherized upon a table, contrasts with this feeling of romance and rather dampens the images of love. TS Eliot replaces the feeling of romance with an anaesthetized atmosphere devoid of emotion, utilizing the technique of bathos, where the form followed the trajectory of elevation followed by the let down of the comparison to the patient etherized. This use of bathos reinforces the modernist techniques employed by TS Eliot to portray the despondence of the character. There is no regular rhyme and TS Eliot also breaks through the barrier of using the rigid lyrics structure by utilizing prose which strives to be emotive and strong lyrics, but purposefully falls short. The detached nature of the poem has an ironic relationship with the traditon of lyric poetry, while alluding to appear to be lyric poetry, it undermines its true nature and content, which is best shown by the lines It is impossible to say what I just mean/ But as if a magic lantern threw the nerves in patterns on a screen:/Would it have been worthwhile/ If one settling a pillow or throwing off a shawl/ And turning towards the window should say:/ That is not it at all/ That is not what I meant at all. The reoccurring themes of Prufocks alienation and isolation are imperative to the poems identification as a hallmark of modernist literature. The poem is set as a monologue and while the opening line refers to you and I, which may seem as a reference to the reader, it can be argued that Prufock is referring to different aspects of his own personality; one that urges him to take action, and the other which is refrained and socially awkward. Throughout the poem Prufocks insecurites are revealed. The lines And indeed, will there be time/ To wonder, Do I dare? And Do I Dare? Time to turn back and descend the stair, With a bald spot in the middle of my hair highlight the fear and insecurites felt by Prufock, as his fear overcomes him and he turns back instead of going into the party. The fact that he mentions his bald spot in the middle of my hair confirms his insecurities about his appearance and whether it will be the subject of gossip. It is pretty evident that Prufocks soul is tortur ed by the irrational insecurities and fears that his mind projects, although it can be said that it stems from his lack of confidence rather then by his own error. The fact that the poem portrays Prufocks inner demons rather then a love story again highlights the modernist aspect that TS Eliot incorporated within the poem. Prufocks inability to act uponmo his desires is prevalent throughout the poem and this paralysis to act is underlined by his lack of confidence and his desire to dwell on problems. This is highlighted by his questioning Would it have been worth it, after all. Prufocks agitated state of mind is conveyed through his constant questioning of himself, agonizing each decision, saying Do I dare? And Do I Dare? / Do I Dare/ Disturb the universe? Prufocks fragile nature can be easily juxtaposed with the fluent eloquent prose in lines such as And the afternoon, the evening, sleeps so peacefully! / Smoothed by long fingers/ Asleep. tired. or it malingers/ Stretched on the floor, here beside you and me. TS Eliot employs another modernist literature technique through the number of references and allusions to other literary works, such as Hamlet in the line- No! I am not Prince Hamlet. Nor was meant to be and in the epigraph a direct reference to Dante Aligheiris Inferno. The epigraph of Dantes Inferno is utilized by TS Eliot to display the similarites between Prufock and the main protagonist in Inferno, incidentally another example of modernist techniques in the poem. Prufocks monologue of a tortured soul burdened by mental inadequacy and lack of self assertiveness can be compared to Guido La Montelferos pain and suffering in Inferno. The epigraph tells us in detail that Guido has been wrapped in a tall flame for his sins, which represents Prufocks own self inflicted punishment, through his inability to communicate and articulate his feelings. The lost soul described in Inferno strikes a chord with the alienated soul of Prufock, who feels that he is Scuttling across floors of silent seas. This feeling of Prufocks debasement to the floors of silent seas resonates with Guidos plight in the depths of hell, which helps the reader realize Prufock is slipping into the abyss of his own personal hell. Fragmentation is one of several modernist techniques employed by TS Eliot to communicate the sense of detachment felt by Prufock in The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufock. Much of the fragmentation in Love Song is achieved by imagery such as Prufocks paranoia that womens eyes have him pinned and wriggling onto the wall. The use of fragmentation enables us to have a clearer insight into Prufocks mind, as his very thoughts are fragmented, as reflected by the lines Time to turn back and descend the stair/ With a bald spot in the middle of my hair-/ They will say-How his hair is growing thin! . The modernist utilization of fragmentation helps clarify that the poem itself is fractured and fragmented, starting with the opening epigraph of Inferno and ranging from the references to Shakespeare and to Prufocks own insecurities and thoughts. In conclusion, it can be said that TS Eliots Love Song of J Alfred Prufock is a leading early example of modernist literature. It contains all the hallmarks of the early modernist movement. At the time of its release, the literary techniques utilized by TS Eliot were considered to be innovative, experimental and breaking new ground. However, this avant-garde movement was greeted by much trepidation at the time, the London Times telling us that they have no relation to poetry 1. Critics such as M. L Rosenthal and Ann P. Brady have also commented on the underlying tone of sexuality in lines such as Should I after tea, cakes and ices, / Have the strength to force moment to its crisis, with Rosenthal suggesting that Prufock evidences a strongly adolescent flavour2. Overall, we can glean however that TS Eliot was successful in creating one of the first modernist literary works through his use of bathos, fragmentation, and anti-lyric techniques. The contrast between the poets fragile and troubled state of mind with the eloquence and grace of the prose employed by TS Eliot helps the poem to achieve this success, which allows the diverging poem to flow with ease.
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Early Release as an Apparent Catalyst for Social Upheaval - Research Proposal Example To further the research, the detrimental aspects of such laws were given so as to prove that there is a remarked disadvantageous consequence to such policies. As such, the over-all thrust of this paper is to illustrate how a justified evolution in systemic process has invariably led to a degenerative movement of the society. Yours Sincerely, __________________________ __________________________ Table of Contents Executive Summary 3 Introduction 4 Coming of the Modern Times: Evolution in the Criminal Justice System 4 The UK Experience: Early Release Program of Prisoners 4 Criminal Justice Act of 1991 5 Short-Term Prisoner 5 Long-Term Prisoner 5 Crime and Disorder Act of 1998 5 Anti-Social Behavior Orders (ASBO) 5 Criminal Justice Act of 2003 6 Court and Police Procedure Reform 6 New Guidelines in Trials without Jury 6 Rules in Criminal Evidence 6 Procedural Amendments in Sentencing Detriments to Early Release Program of Prisoners 6 Social Stigma 6 Complex and Restrictive After-Release Arrangement 7 Divergent Implementation Procedure of After-Release Policies 7 Failure of Reformation 7 Evolution of the Criminal Justice System 7 UK Key Determinants: Crime Rate 7 Tables 7 1: World Ranking of Countries with the Most Number of Violent Crimes 8 2: British Crime Survey Ã¢â¬â 2008/09 9 3: Police Recorded Crime Ã¢â¬â 2008/09 10 4: Trends in BCS Violent Crime By Type of Violence, 1995 to 2008/09 10 Conclusion 11 References 12 Executive Summary The United Kingdom has afforded the implementation of legislative enactments focusing on the re-integration of unlawful offenders into the mainstream society through the Criminal Justice Act of 1991, the Crime and Disorder Act of 1998 and the Criminal Justice Act of 2003. These laws have underscored the significance and viable contribution that an early-release of prisoners would generate into the well-being of the nation. However, factors such as the alarming prognosis set by the UK crime rate after the implementation of said rules have presented the idea that the early release of prisoners may not actually be a step towards the development of the society. In fact, the enactment of the mentioned laws may actually be construed as a movement towards the generation of an otherwise functional community. In this regard, this paper seeks to establish the detrimental consequences associated with an early release program of prisoners. This paper will provide a summation of the societal implication of advocating such reform in criminal justice by assessing the English social systemic make up and its concomitant response to such development. Over all, this paper will show how a perceived progressive stance is invariably paralleled to a regressive step leading to the collapse of an otherwise competent nation. Introduction In 1944, a year prior to the enactment of the United Nations of its charter espousing the abolition of racism, George Junius Stinney, a fourteen year-old black boy was executed in South Carolina (Taylor, 2011; Bydoon, 2010). In 1979, a mentally-ill man named John Paul Penry was condemned to suffer the death penalty (Orecklin, 2000). In 2006, four days after his 76th birthday and four months after a near-fatal heart
Monday, February 10, 2020
Why the Labout Party Took Long to Make Itself Electable after 1979 - Essay Example The Labour party was founded on democratic socialism. As a result, it had close affiliations with trade unions (Lyman 1957). As a matter of fact, the party was founded so as to fight for the rights of the workers. The party rose from its humble beginnings in 1990 to form its first government under Prime Minister Clement Attlee. Labour party was in office from 1945-1951. This government was the most radical of all British governments to have come into office in the 20th Century. It strived to implement the theories espoused by John Maynard Keynes, among others. This government nationalized key industries where it had majority stake. An example of such industries was banking; where the bank of England was taken back by the government. The same case happened with mining, telecommunications and transport, steel, railway and canals industries. They believed the government had to have a hand in the running of vital industries, an idea that seems so out of place in the era of rapid privatiz ation (Lyman 1957). The Attlee government also instituted the N.H.S (National Health Service). This is a program of socialized medicine that is the envy of the world today. This scheme made affordable healthcare accessible to the extremely poor people in the society. The Attlee government was also behind the slow dismantling of the British Empire. Independence was granted to several colonies, most notably India, the jewel in BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s imperial crown. The party went on to lose the 1951 general election to the Conservatives, and spent several years in opposition until LabourÃ¢â¬â¢s Harold Wilson was elected Prime Minister in 1964. Harold WilsonÃ¢â¬â¢s administration also reinforced the idea of Ã¢â¬ËlabourÃ¢â¬â¢ as the true Leftist party by putting in place sweeping social and educational reforms. Key among them was the legalization of abortion and homosexuality. On the educational front, comprehensive education was made accessible to millions through the creation of the Open University. This is another idea that has been replicated by the rest of the world. Even with such positive changes, Labour party was voted out of office in 1970. The party had inherited a large trade deficit that triggered a currency crisis in which the pound was severely weakened. The party was to return to power again in 1976 under James Callaghan. This administration was tirelessly trying to battle the economic crisis present at that time. It ruled with a slight majority in the Commons. Internally, the party was split down the middle over BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s membership of the European Economic Community, E.E.C. The issue had to go to referendum. The public showed its overwhelming support for BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s continued membership with a two thirds majority. By this time, inflation stood at a staggering 23%. The government successfully lowered inflation by a policy of wage restraint to a rate of 7%. However, this brought cracks in the relationship between Labour and the trade u nions who wanted wages to move only in one direction, up. To shelter ordinary Britons from this economic storm, the Labour government presided an era of rising pensions coupled with massive subsidies on food items (Lyman 1957). This was aimed at to protecting the tiny incomes that had already been decimated by inflation in the rest of the economy. The government sauntered on and introduced several welfare schemes to protect the extremely poor. Pensions of the disabled were significantly increased, and employment legislation ensured that people could be hired even for a short time. Pregnant women were also granted leave. Workplace inspection was prioritized to prevent workers from hazardous working conditions. Unfair dismissal was also curbed through Industrial Tribunals. While the
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Israel from Palestinian territories Essay Egypts was in support of the Declaration of Principles treaty as they interpreted it to be supportive of their ideologies ion what would bring a lasting peace to the Middle East. The fact that the declaration transferred power over west bank and Gaza was in accordance with Egypts belief that the withdrawal of Israel from Palestinian Territories was the key to a lasting peace (Brown, 2004). Egypt thus responded by doing what was expected of it during the agreement as they believed that the declaration would bring a lasting peace if both sides kept to their side of the bargain. The Declaration of Principles required Egypt to help the two nations in cooperating so as to achieve the peace that was longed for in the Middle East. Egypt also supported the declaration as it included maintenance of security though by only Israel. Egypt has always believed that security was vital for peace hence supported by helping provide police officers and passports to the Palestinian citizens as was required by the agreement. Countries such as Iran, Israeli Settlers and Syria did not participate in the agreement as they did not believe that the peace would last. Others thought that the agreement was a threat to them and did not want it to succeed. Most of these nations also are Islamic and view Jews to be a threat to their religion hence were hesitated in supporting the peace talks. Most groups believe that DOP process stopped in 2000 which could be true as the events that are currently happening violate the agreements made. Egypts foreign policies are also committed to ensuring that a lasting peace which is comprehensive can come to the Middle East. It does so by being involved actively in the efforts that that can achieve the peace. Egypt for example was the first Arab nation to sign a peace treaty with Israel, a move which caused Israel to be expelled from the Arab League (Embassy of Egypt, 2009). The treaty required Israel to completely withdraw and retreat from Sinai in 1979 in exchange for peaceful normal diplomatic relations according to which Israeli honoured and withdrew. The two countries have since then had good diplomatic relations that are peaceful (Embassy of Egypt, 2009). Egypt believes that peace can only come to the Middle East if the efforts being made are comprehensive at making Israeli withdraw from the Palestinian territories it has been occupying that prevent the creation of an independent Palestine. Egypt also believes that Israel has to recognize and respect Palestines political rights in the controversial Jerusalem. Egypt has therefore been at the forefront in constantly assisting the partners negotiating in the peace process towards applying the Israeli withdrawal for peace to be achieved (Embassy of Egypt, 2009). Egypt also believes that it is possible for stable peace to be achieved between Israel and Palestine if mechanisms can be adopted that would ensure that security is maintained by both parties so that one party can not take advantage of its economic and military superiority to attack the other party. Egypt proposes the region to be freed from weapons of mass destruction in order to enhance security and reduce attacks on each other (Embassy of Egypt, 2009). Egypt further explains that a framework that would ensure regional cooperation needs to be established as it would enhance peace stability and benefit the individuals in the region. As discussed above, Egypt believes that there is possibility for potential future peace agreement which may be solely between Israel and the Palestinian because the disruption of peace in the entire Middle East is attributed to the conflict between the two nations. The conflict between Israel and other Arab nation is also a result of the conflict between it and Palestine. Solving the conflict between Israel and Palestine thus is the answer to bringing peace in the Middle East. Egypt advocates for peace between the two nations and want it be such that security is maintained in the two nations and that they are both disarmed of any weapons of mass destruction. Egypt believes that it is lack of security and presence of the weapons that encourages the two nations to attack each other. Egypt also advocates for the establishment of a framework as discussed earlier that would enhance cooperation between the two nations towards promoting peace stability that will be beneficial to the people I n the region (Brown, 2004). If a peace conference was held today, Egypt would still support a peace deal between the two nations. Egypt supports a two state solution just like the United States does (Asharq Alawshat, 2009). This is because Egypt believes in bringing a comprehensive and lasting peace to the Middle East. Following the most recent attacks on the Gaza strip by Israel which left hundreds of Palestinians dead, and the persistent occupation of Israel in areas that are rightfully Palestinians, Egypt would want a peace deal to be reached in which Israel must retreat and withdraw from occupying these areas so that Palestine can become an independent state as it was before the Israel occupation of its territories (Asharq Alawshat, 2009). Egypt will not accept either Israel or Palestine to own weapons of mass destruction as this would easily trigger another conflict in the event a peace agreement was reached. This is so as to stop the two nations from carrying on attacks and bombings on each other. Egypt would also not accept the deal if Israel did not withdraw from the Palestinian territories it currently is occupying. Egypt would offer diplomatic support as it always has in reaching a peace deal between the two nations (Brown, 2004). Egypt would be ready to act as a mediator between the two nations as they negotiate as it has good relations with both of them. Egypt believes that Israel should recognise Palestines rights regarding Jerusalem, during the peace conference, it would advocate for the recognition to be included in the terms of the final peace deal as Jerusalem is important to Palestine just as it is to Israel. Egypt wants a lasting peace in the Middle East and would do everything it can to help achieve it. Word count: 1500. References Al-Azmeh, A. (1993). Islams and Modernities. New York: Verso. Asharq Alawshat. (2009). Latest News. Retrieved 109th May 2009 from, http://www. asharq-e. com/. Breasted, J. Piccione, A. P. (2001). Ancient Records of Egypt. Chicago, Illinois : University of Illinois Press. Brown. C. L. (2004). Diplomacy in the Middle East: The International Relations of Regional and Outside Powers. New york, NY : I. B. Tauris. Embassy of Egypt. (2009). Political System. Derived 19th May 2009 from http://www. egyptembassy. net/.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Characterization in The Remains of the Day Ã The Remains of the Day is a book that believes in defining its characters to remarkable detail. Even minor characters are brought to life, using a variety of methods; some subtle, others more overt. This essay will discuss the entire novel - just the first eight pages. Many novels would still only be setting the scene at this point but, with The Remains of the Day, many of the main characters have already been described in a fair amount of detail. Creating detailed and believable characters is usually a key factor in a book's success. If a story contains rich, fleshed-out characters, readers will be able to understand and empathise with them, so becoming more enveloped by the narrative and, consequently, more enjoying the book. There are, of course, exceptions; in some cases characters are left deliberately vague so as to increase the atmosphere surrounding them, for example. However, The Remains of the Day is a book which believes in defining its characters to remarkable detail. Even minor characters are brought to life, using a variety of methods; some subtle, others more overt. This essay title does not refer to the whole novel, though - just the first eight pages. Many novels would still only be setting the scene at this point but, with The Remains of the Day, many of the main characters have already been described in a fair amount of detail. There are, generally, two methods of characterization. One involves merely stating character traits (along the lines of "the man was arrogant and obnoxiousÃ¢â¬ ¢ - note that this is an example and not a quote from the text), a method which Ishiguro does not use in great abundance. He much prefers to reveal character information in more subtle and oblique ways, often through their actions and words. This allows readers to judge characters partly for themselves, without having them explicitly prejudged by the writer. The character of Stevens is unique amongst the others in the novel, as it is written from a first-person perspective and he is the narrator. Ishiguro uses a wide variety of techniques to develop Stevens' character during the first eight pages. The very fact that the novel has a first-person narrative is significant. This usually allows readers to know and understand more about the narrator's character, as the text is ?written' by him. Characterization in The Remains of the Day :: The Remains of the Day Characterization in The Remains of the Day Ã The Remains of the Day is a book that believes in defining its characters to remarkable detail. Even minor characters are brought to life, using a variety of methods; some subtle, others more overt. This essay will discuss the entire novel - just the first eight pages. Many novels would still only be setting the scene at this point but, with The Remains of the Day, many of the main characters have already been described in a fair amount of detail. Creating detailed and believable characters is usually a key factor in a book's success. If a story contains rich, fleshed-out characters, readers will be able to understand and empathise with them, so becoming more enveloped by the narrative and, consequently, more enjoying the book. There are, of course, exceptions; in some cases characters are left deliberately vague so as to increase the atmosphere surrounding them, for example. However, The Remains of the Day is a book which believes in defining its characters to remarkable detail. Even minor characters are brought to life, using a variety of methods; some subtle, others more overt. This essay title does not refer to the whole novel, though - just the first eight pages. Many novels would still only be setting the scene at this point but, with The Remains of the Day, many of the main characters have already been described in a fair amount of detail. There are, generally, two methods of characterization. One involves merely stating character traits (along the lines of "the man was arrogant and obnoxiousÃ¢â¬ ¢ - note that this is an example and not a quote from the text), a method which Ishiguro does not use in great abundance. He much prefers to reveal character information in more subtle and oblique ways, often through their actions and words. This allows readers to judge characters partly for themselves, without having them explicitly prejudged by the writer. The character of Stevens is unique amongst the others in the novel, as it is written from a first-person perspective and he is the narrator. Ishiguro uses a wide variety of techniques to develop Stevens' character during the first eight pages. The very fact that the novel has a first-person narrative is significant. This usually allows readers to know and understand more about the narrator's character, as the text is ?written' by him.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
Abstract For years the health care industry has explored methods to improve the way patient information is managed. Electronic medical records were developed to solve many, if not all, issues surrounding paper medical records and the management of patient information. Storage, legibility, accessibility and security of medical records are a few of the areas where electronic medical records excel over paper medical records. Instantaneous access and improved accuracy resulting from electronic medical records can greatly improve a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s quality of care, prevent serious harm to patients, and ultimately save lives. Financial aspects play a large role in the implementation of electronic medical records. While there are many cost-saving advantages to electronic medical records, the initial cost of implementation burdens many if not most health care facilities. This burden may prohibit health care facilities from the ability to implement electronic medical records. Overall, physicians and patients agree that electronic medical records will help improve patient care and efficiency. Health Information Technology: Electronic Medical Records For years the health care industry has explored methods to improve the way patient information is managed. Paper medical records are cumbersome and require a lot of storage space and personnel to maintain them. Transferring paper records between health care facilities and professionals is very tedious and time-consuming. To solve many, if not all, issues surrounding paper medical records, electronic medical records were developed. Electronic medical records relieve the issue of large warehouses of storage and tedious transferring of information, as well as many of the other concerns affiliated with paper records. While there are many advantages to electronic medical records, there are also some downfalls, such as the initial cost of implementation and the financial burden this places on healthcare facilities. Storage According to journalist John Csiszar, hospitals and medical facilities have warehouses filled with decades-worth of paper medical records (2012, Storage section, para. 1). Paper medical records not only take up quite a bit of space, they are also not eco-friendly (Csiszar, 2012, Storage section, para. 1). Another drawback of paper medical records is that they deteriorate over time due to paper being degradable and the more a paper record is handled, the faster it deteriorates. This poses major consequences, especially for patients who have chronic medical issues that require multiple reviews of their records. Electronic medical records are far easier to store than paper records. Csiszar states, Ã¢â¬Å"Electronic [medical] records can be stored on computer drives that require much less space and fewer resources to produceÃ¢â¬ (2012, Storage section, para. 1). Electronic medical records can also be stored and accessed forever, without concern of deterioration, as is associated with paper medical records (Csiszar, 2012, Storage section, para. 1). This is extremely beneficial for health care providers as they are able to review patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ medical histories repeatedly without risk of deteriorating or damaging records. Legibility It is generally acknowledged that the readability of a hand-written document is dependent upon the penmanship of the writer. Legibility of handwriting varies with the individual. Medical terminology, especially for those unfamiliar with medicine, can be challenging to decipher in paper medical records (Csiszar, 2012, Legibility section, para. 1). This legibility problem can lead to miscommunication among health care providers and grievous errors, which in turn can lead to poor care, harm, and even death of patients. Csiszar notes, Ã¢â¬Å"One of the clear benefits of electronic [medical] records is that typeface is more or less standardized and clear across all recordsÃ¢â¬ (2012, Legibility section, para. 1). The clarity provided by electronic medical records saves time for the reader, and time is critical during medical treatment (Csiszar, 2012, Legibility section, para. 1). Improved accuracy resulting from the clarity of communication can prevent serious harm to patients and ulti mately save lives. Access When it comes to accessing a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s medical record, paper records are by far the most vexing to retrieve. In order for health care facilities or providers to share patient records with other facilities and providers, paper medical records must be copied and mailed, faxed, or scanned into the computer and emailed (Csiszar, 2012, Access section, para. 1). These processes can be very time-consuming and ultimately affect the outcome of a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s condition. Electronic medical records are designed to be easily shared among health care providers, especially providers employed by the same health care company. Electronic medical records can be shared almost instantaneously via electronic transmission or direct access to a computer storage system (Csiszar, 2012, Access section, para. 1). This instantaneous access can greatly benefit a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s quality of care, particularly when time is of the essence. Security Both paper and electronic medical records can be problematic when protecting patient privacy. According to the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, three of the most common security risks include: Ã¢â¬Å"(1) the risk of inappropriate access, (2) the risk of record tampering, and (3) the risk of record loss due to natural catastrophesÃ¢â¬ (2012, para. 2). Risk of Inappropriate Access Regardless of the format of a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s medical record, it is always vulnerable to a risk of inappropriate access (Health Resources and Services Administration, 2012, para. 3). For paper medical records, the risk of inappropriate access occurs when individuals gain access to record storage areas, find records left in patient or exam rooms, receive misdirected faxes, or other similar scenarios (Health Resources and Services Administration, 2012, para. 4). The HRSA states, Since access to paper [medical] records implies physical access, securing against inappropriate access is accomplished by segregating records into separate locked storage areas; restricting physical access to storage areas; recording sign in and sign out procedures; and maintaining records handling training and other similar procedures (2012, para. 4). With electronic medical records, inappropriate access takes place in one of two ways: (1) an unauthorized user accesses a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s record; or (2) an authorized user violates conditions of the appropriate use policy (Health Resources and Services Administration, 2012, para. 5). According to the HRSA, Ã¢â¬Å"Electronic [medical] records can also be subject to breaches of network security that may allow a hacker to gain access to user credentials and thereby bypass the access control protectionsÃ¢â¬ (2012, para. 5). It is important for health care facilities to have strict network access guidelines and security as well as an appropriate use policy that is reviewed by newly hired staff and routinely reviewed by all staff. Risk of Record Tampering Medical records can be manipulated or tampered with in many ways, including changing dates of records, entering fraudulent data, or changing entries. Any individual who has access to a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s paper medical record has the ability to remove pages, add or erase entries, or other fraudulent acts (Health Resources and Services Administration, 2012, para. 7). Tracing the origin of altered paper medical records is very difficult and sometimes impossible. Electronic medical records are much more difficult to fraudulently manipulate because the ability to make changes to an electronic record depends on the rights assigned to a specific user. Individuals with privileges to modify data have the ability to add, delete, or change data or entire records (Health Resources and Services Administration, 2012, para. 8). An electronic medical record can also be tampered with by directly accessing information stored on the server using a server account rather than a user account (Health Resources and Services Administration, 2012, para. 8). Fortunately, any access or manipulation to electronic medical records can be tracked and thus is traceable. Identifying the person who may have fraudulently accessed or modified a record is much easier through electronic medical records than through paper medical records. Risk of Loss Due to Natural Catastrophes According to the HRSA, Ã¢â¬Å"Fires, floods or other environmental disasters attack physical locations and can result in the complete loss of both paper and electronic medical recordsÃ¢â¬ (2012, para. 9). An advantage to electronic medical records is that they can be continuously backed up to off-site storage. Therefore, the records can always be recovered, even if the physical medical facility is damaged. Financial Aspects In recent years, hospitals nationwide have been faced with immense pressure to implement health information technology systems, such as electronic medical records. According to Jay J. Shen, PhD and Gregory O. Ginn, PhD, CPA, The initiative to implement health information technology has persisted through two administrations. First, during the G.W. Bush Administration, the position of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology was created by executive order in the Department of Health and Human Services. Later, in the B.H. Obama Administration, Congress passed The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (2012, p. 61). The expectation of implementing health information technology is the improvement of hospital performance with regard to cost and quality of care to the consumer and the health care system. The downside of these initiatives is the crushing financial repercussions endured by non-profit hospital systems. Positive Financial Aspects By implementing health information technology, especially electronic medical records, hospitals can reduce the costs associated with quality patient care. Shen and Ginn state, Hospitals should be able to reduce the costs associated with medical errors by identifying harmful drug reactions or possible allergic reactions using the information provided by Ã¢â¬ ¦ [electronic medical records]. Hospitals should also be able to lower costs by facilitating preventative medicine and helping physicians manage patients with complex chronic conditions by utilizing the information provided by Ã¢â¬ ¦ [electronic medical records] (2012, p. 62). Electronic medical records help to increase efficiency and reduce cost by: (1) decreasing the need for medical transcription and physically pulling charts; (2) prompting providers to prescribe generic drugs instead of brand-name drugs; and (3) reducing duplicate diagnostic tests and studies (Shen & Ginn, 2012, p. 62). Electronic medical records contribute to lowered costs while improving the efficiency and quality of care for hospitals, patients, and the entire health care system. Negative Financial Aspects In recent years, only a small percentage of health care facilities have implemented electronic medical records, even though these facilities have the ability to experience substantial cost savings and improvements in quality of care (Shen & Ginn, 2012, p. 62). Ã¢â¬Å"This low rate of adoption is attributed in large part to financial barriers,Ã¢â¬ states Shen and Ginn (2012, p. 62). Some of the financial barriers contributing to the low adoption rate of electronic medical records include: (1) significant capital requirements; (2) absence of clear evidence showing a positive effect on investment return; (3) high maintenance expenses; and (4) high human resources costs associated with the need for an increased number of information technology staff (Shen & Ginn, 2012, p. 62). Another financial barrier for health care facilities is that although they endure the cost of implementing electronic medical records, the providers and payers experience the financial benefits from the cost sav ings (Shen & Ginn, 2012, p. 62). Physician and Patient Perception of Electronic Medical Records Overall, research shows that electronic medical records have been well-received by the base of physicians and patients affected by their implementation. Sage Healthcare Division, a unit of Sage North America, conducted a study that examined the effect of electronic medical record implementation on physicians and their patients (Healthcare IT News Staff, 2011, para. 1-2). The study indicated that the majority of patients and physicians have a positive perception of electronic medical records (Healthcare IT News Staff, 2011, para. 1). Healthcare IT News Staff specify, Ã¢â¬Å"According to the study, patients felt more comfortable with physicians that used Ã¢â¬ ¦ [electronic medical records], and more importantly, felt that the information contained in the medical record was more accurate when they physically saw information being entered electronicallyÃ¢â¬ (2011, para. 3). Betty Otter-Nickerson, President of Sage Healthcare Division, noted, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ [W]e learned Ã¢â¬ ¦ [that] Ã¢â¬ ¦ patients like to see their verbatim information entered into the record as they said it, not as the doctor interpreted itÃ¢â¬ (Healthcare IT News Staff, 2011, para. 4). She also noted that patients who participated in the survey said they had greater confidence in providers who used electronic medical records and encouraged their physicians to adopt more connected technologies such as electronic medical records (Healthcare IT News Staff, 2011, para. 6-7). Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ [D]irect feedback from patients gives providers an opportunity to learn how to improve their practices and their patient relationships,Ã¢â¬ stated Otter-Nickerson (Healthcare IT News Staff, 2011, para. 7). Key Findings * Physicians and patients have a positive overall perception of patient care that was documented electronically (62 percent of physicians and 81 percent of patients) (Healthcare IT News Staff, 2011, para. 5). * Nearly half of patients positively perceived their physician when they were noted to be documenting electronically (45 percent) (Healthcare IT News Staff, 2011, para. 5). * Over half of physicians find real-time access to patient records to be the biggest benefit of using electronic medical records (60 percent) (Healthcare IT News Staff, 2011, para. 5). * One of the most important benefits noted by physicians is the ability to easily share information with other physicians, facilities, and payers (Healthcare IT News Staff, 2011, para. 5). * The majority of patients and physicians agreed that electronic medical records will improve the quality of care in the healthcare industry (78 percent of patients and 62 percent of physicians) (Healthcare IT News Staff, 2011, para. 5). * Both patients and physicians have concerns about patient privacy and the security of electronic medical records (81 percent of patients and 62 percent of physicians) (Healthcare IT News Staff, 2011, para. 5). * The most important benefits noted of electronic medical records were: (1) they give physicians real-time access to patient records; (2) they help physicians securely share patient information with other providers; and (3) they help the physician improve the quality of patient care (Healthcare IT News Staff, 2011, para. 5). Conclusion Electronic medical records are a useful tool in improving patient satisfaction, quality of care, and the efficiency of the health care industry. Electronic storage options relieve the burden of large warehouses and the risk of deteriorating repeatedly viewed medical records. Instantaneous access and improved accuracy resulting from electronic medical records can greatly improve a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s quality of care, prevent serious harm to patients and ultimately save lives. The ability to easily identify individuals who may have fraudulently accessed or modified a record helps to protect accuracy of records and patient privacy. Although the initial implementation costs of electronic medical records can be quite arduous, the cost-saving benefits will continue to grow. Patients and physicians agree that electronic medical records will improve patient quality and efficiency of care. References Csiszar, J. (n.d.). Paper vs. electronic medical records. Retrieved November 12, 2012, from Chron: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/paper-vs-electronic-medical-records-40354.html Health Resources and Services Administration. (n.d.). What are the privacy and security risks of electronic vs. paper health records? Retrieved November 12, 2012, from U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: http://www.hrsa.gov/healthit/toolbox/HealthITAdoptiontoolbox/PrivacyandSecurity/securityrisks.html Healthcare IT News Staff. (2011). Study: Patients believe EMRs bring accuracy to their records. Retrieved November 15, 2012, from Healthcare IT News: http://www.healthcareitnews.com/news/study-patients-believe-emrs-bring-accuracy-their-records Shen, J. J., & Ginn, G. O. (2012). Financial position and adoption of electronic health records: A retrospective longitudinal study. J Health Care Finance, 61-77.
Monday, January 6, 2020
The French Revolution paved the way for liberty and equality for the country of France. In order for this to happen, France had to eliminate some major obstacles including King Louis XVI. The problems in France ultimately resulted in a rebellion. Though the American Revolution provided a model of rebellion for revolution in France, the major concepts of the Enlightenment joined with the struggle of the bourgeoisie against the nobility to fuel the revolution; the new ideas included equality, leadership, and economic struggle. The short and long term factors of the revolution along with many other different problems in France ultimately led to the French people rising up to make a change. The lack of equality was a critical issue and aÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬Å"On July 14, 1789, parisian crowds in search of weapons attacked and captured the royal armory known as the bastilleÃ¢â¬ (). The inequality between the three estates finally became too much and there was a major problem in France that formed. Another of the biggest problems during the french revolution was economic problems. These problems had to do with the american revolution along with the french revolution. The money in france at this time was in the first and second estates. The third estate had almost no money. The taxes in france were raised every time france was in need of money and this caused havoc with all the people in france. Ã¢â¬Å"Unlike the british, who had a system of public-supported poor relief, the French responded to poverty with ad hoc policies when conditions became acute.Ã¢â¬ (). Also money in france was going to america to support the American revolution and therefore the people in france were paying tax money that was not even benefiting them. Ã¢â¬Å"At a time when france was experiencing economic crisis, the government was drastically short of money. Yet french governmental extravagance continued to grow due to costly warsÃ¢â¬ .() Finally another major problem around economics in france at t his time was food. During this time food was very valuable because not many people had money, the problem was that there was a drought meaning crops could not grow leavingShow MoreRelatedThe Major Causes Of The French Revolution Of 1789853 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe French Revolution of 1789 was one of the biggest upheavals in history. You may be wondering what exactly led this to happen, but there was multiple long range causes. Political, social, and economic conditions ultimately led to the discontent of many French people especially those of the third estate. The ideals of the Enlightenment brought new views to government and society. Before the revolution, the majority of France was living in poverty. 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